Area Where Paravets Work
Paul Mandi and Daniel Kamuti are both paravets in the area of Kathekani, near to the town of Mtoti Andei in the eastern province of Kenya. Their land is very close to the Tsavo National Game Park. Most of the information for this design context is based on Paul's work and he is featured in most of the photographs.
Like many other farmers, Paul came to Mtoti Andei 25 years ago from Machakos, about 180 kilometres away, closer to Nairobi. He was an experienced farmer but had been told there was land available there and so he chose to move with his family. Like many of his fellow travellers, all from the Kamba tribe, he did not expect the problems he encountered. His whole herd of some 50 cattle was wiped out by trypanosomosis, the disease carried by the tsetse fly.
He heard of a programme, organised by Intermediate Technology Development Group, that was training farmers to become paravets who were able to deal with a range of animal welfare problems common in the area. He became one of the first farmers to join the training. He continues to go for additional training every year, saying, "There's always something new to learn."
There are about 1900 people in the area where Paul farms and works. They live in about 300 households. They are almost all subsistence farmers who depend on growing as much food as they can and keeping livestock - mainly chickens, goats and cows. Only a few are able to produce enough milk or eggs to sell in local markets. Most eke out a living by selling any extra they may have or by seeking casual work in Mtoti Andei.
Animals, and cows in particular, are a sign of success. Most people will have only one or two. Paul has managed to rebuild a small herd and is proud of their health, which he attributes to his training. He is currently experimenting with a new breed of cow which he hopes will produce a much better milk yield. He manages to sell milk in the local market every day and his cows and goats all look very healthy. Keeping animals healthy is vital to the community so Paul's work gives him status and respect. People need him and the 60 or so other paravets if they are to survive.
Paul is called on by other farmers in his designated area, very close to the game reserve, and therefore more prone to tsetse fly invasions brought by the wild animals. On average he will deal with between 10 and 15 cases per month though in the rainy season, when flies are at their worst, he will be called out more often, sometimes 4-5 times a day. Last year he dealt with 122 cases.
The cost of treatment has fallen dramatically as a result of the paravets' work. Previously everyone had to rely on the government veterinary surgeons, who had to cover the whole area and so were difficult to contact. Having to call on a vet could cost as much as 500 shillings (about £5 and a lot of money to a typical Kenyan family). Now Paul can treat an animal with worms with a tablet that costs 7 shillings (7p). He buys his medicines from the local drugstore, another relatively new development that was encouraged when the paravets were being trained.
Paul and his colleagues can recognise the common signs of disease in animals. Apart from his experience, the only instrument of diagnosis he has is a thermometer. The thermometer is very useful. If a cow has a temperature much above 38-46C there is something wrong. "If it's below that it's probably dead," he says wryly.